Monday, 29 April 2013

Important Tables in SAP HR

Important Tables
  • T500P – Personnel areas overview
  • V_T001P - Personnel Area/Subarea
  • T501 - Employee Group
  • T503K - Employee subgroup
  • V_T500P - Assignment of Personnel Area to Company Cod
  • V_T503Z - Country Assignment for Employee Group/Subgroup
  • V_T582A-Infotype attributes
  • V_T548Y - Date Types
  • T555U - Employee Time Management status
  • V_T582L - Infotypes - country-specific settings
Payroll Tables
  • V_T512Z - Permitted Wage Types per infotype
  • V_511_B - Permissibility of Wage Types for each PS and ESG
  • V_T511 - Wage Type Characteristics
  • V_512W_B - Valuation Bases
  • V_512W_C - Averages
  • V_512W_D - Processing Classes, Cumulations, and Evaluation Classes
  • V_512W_O - Complete View T512W
  • V_512W_T  - Wage Type Texts 
  • V_51P6_B - Characteristics of arrears deductions: priority, character. 
  • V_51P6_C - Characteristics of arrears deductions: retro-Accounting 
  • V_T51P6  - Characteristics of Arrears Deductions: Overall View  

Time Management Tables
  • · V_T550P - Work Break Schedule
  • · V_T551A - Period Work Schedule
  • · V_T550A – Daily Work Schedule
  • · V_503_D - Employee Subgroup Grouping for Work Schedule
  • · V_001P_M - Assign Personnel Subarea to Public Holiday Calendar
  • · V_001P_D - Personnel Subarea Grouping for Absence/Attendance Types
  • · V_T554S - Absence: Input Checks
  • · V_503_E - Employee Subgroup Grouping for Time Quotas 
Important OM relationships
  • · A002 Reports (line) to
  • · A003 Belongs to
  • · A008 Holder
  • · A011 Cost center assignment 

Sunday, 14 April 2013

Authorization in SAP HR

Q. What is double verification principle ?
  • All critical data is protected
  • Authorization to access specific data has to be given
Q. Authorization in SAP?
A. Authorizations control system users’ access to system data and are therefore a fundamental prerequisite for the implementation of business software. There are two main ways to set up authorizations for SAP Human Resources:
  • General Authorizations - determines which object data (infotype, subtype) and which access mode (Read, Write ...) the user has an access.
    • Single Role       - Individual authorizations either  to screens, infotypes, etc.,
    • Composite Role- Group of Single Roles clubbed together and called as composite role
  • Structural Authorization: determines to which object/objects in the organizational structure the user has an access. It describes the special authorizations that you can define in Personnel Planning and Development in addition to the basic access authorizations
Q. What is a role and what is it made up of? / How are the authorizations in a role maintained?
A. Role is the way how authorizations are granted in SAP or the activities which are performed by an individual are restricted. A role consists of all the duties performed by an individual in the organization. For e.g., the clerk or the manager or buyer or dispatcher etc.. Two managers of same cadre have same type of duties. Technically a role contains all the items(transactions or tcodes, reports, links) which are needed by an individual in particular position.

In a  role-based authorization system the structure of organization is well defined, the activities performed by each individual are defined clearly and the users are assigned to generic roles (technical)  which contains tcodes necessary for performing the job. There are three types of roles.
  • Single roles
  • Composite roles
  • Derived roles
Q. Composite Role
A. A composite role has many single roles. No authorization data can be maintained in a composite role.  You can enter some menu entries like links to websites, reports only. Tcodes cannot be added. The authorization data has to be maintained only in the single roles.

When you attach a composite roles to a user all the single roles gets attached to him. In the change documents it shows the single profiles that belongs to single roles gets attached to them. Suppose a composite role has 3 single roles. When you attach this composite role to a user then 3 authorizations profiles will get attached to him. The change count  in SUIM will be 3.

Q. Derived Role
A. These roles are derived from already existing roles.The derived roles inherit the menu structure and functions (including transactions etc…) of the referred role.

Q. What is Profile Generator?
A. The Profile Generator tool allows authorization administrators to automatically generate and assign authorization profiles. 

Q. What are the main advantages of the Profile Generator?
A. The Profile Generator tool is used to:
  • Select transactions from the company menu
  • Retrieve all authorization objects to transactions selected (Via Check ID Tables)
  • Generate authorizations once field restrictions have been entered for each authorization object
  • Group authorizations in auto-generated profiles
The administrator has only to configure customer-specific settings such as:
  • The Company Menu enables transactions available for customer
  • The Check ID tables 1) assign the authorization objects that are relevant to a transaction, and 2) assign default values for authorization objects
  • Once the configuration is complete, the profile generator will then be capable of managing all tasks, such as selecting the relevant authorization objects for transactions selected.
Q. Are authorization objects or profiles assigned to users?
A. A user's authorizations for the various objects in the SAP R/3 System are determined by authorization
profiles that are assigned in the user master record.

An authorization object is made up of a maximum of 10 authorization fields. For the sake of clarity, the authorization objects are grouped according to applications. 

Authorization profiles are lists of authorization objects and the corresponding authorizations.

Reporting in HRM - QnAs

Q. Logical Databases
A. For every SAP HR consultant it is important to understand HR logical databases in SAP HR. A layer above the physical database lies the HR logical databases called PNP, PCH and PAP. Logical databases contain data tables from sub-modules of SAP HR.
Logical DatabaseInfotypesLogical Area
PNP 0000-0999, 2000 to 2999HR Master Data & Time
Infotypes of specified object type else all infotypes
Note : You should know when to choose between the PNP and the PCH logical databases when building your report or query and the key is whether you want the primary key for selection to be the personnel number or the object type. If the primary key is to be the PERNR (personnel number) then you should select the PNP logical database and if you want it to be any object type like O – org unit, S- position, C- job, L- Business Event Group, D- Business Event Type E- Business Even etc, then you should select the PCH logical database. And PAP when the primary key must be the applicant number.

This means if you want to query by employee the business events attended, you choose PNP, and if you want to know for certain specific business events who are the attendees, you choose PCH logical database to build your query, program or reports.
Q. Is the Business Information Warehouse (BIW) part of the SAP R/3 system?
A. BIW is independent of SAP R/3 system. It integrates state-of-the-art data warehouse technologies with SAP business know-how

A data warehouse is an independent application environment with its own database that retrieves information from various data sources and is designed to perform queries and analyses.

Q. Can customer-specific reports be incorporated in the Managers Desktop?
A. Yes. Manager's Desktop is tailored to the daily needs of managers - line managers, for example - by helping them to perform their administrative, organizational, and strategic tasks and make Human Resource decisions with the help of swift access to required HR data of directly and indirectly subordinate employees. It then enables them to report on this data.

Managers can also execute cross-application functions: for example, they can execute workflow tasks (work items) or start reports from Controlling. Manager's Desktop can be used to execute a wide range of standard reports from Human Resources and Controlling, as well as customer reports. Its web browser integration means that Manager's Desktop enables managers to display intranet and Internet pages.

Q. Where do you find standard reports in HR?
A. You can search for standard reports in individual applications, or across several applications. Application-specific standard reports are available in the info systems of individual HR components. In addition, standard HR reports are grouped together in comprehensive info systems in the SAP Easy Access menu.

Info systems for components: All of the reports for a specific HR component are grouped together by content in that component’s info system. To access the info system of individual HR components, choose the following:
  • Human Resources ® <component> ® Info system ® Reports
  • Human Resources ® Payroll ® <continent> ® <country> ® Info system
  • Human Resources ® Time Management ® <component> ® Info system
HR Information System: The HR Information System contains the reporting tools and all HR-specific reports. To access the HR Information System, choose the following:
  • Human Resources ® Information system ® Reports
SAP info system: By far the largest collection of standard reports is contained in the SAP info system. The standard HR reports can be accessed in one of two ways:
  • Info systems ® Human Resources ® Reports ® <component>
  • Info systems ® General report selection ® Human Resources ® <component>
If you require a report that is not included in the standard system, you can use the HR reporting tools to create reports yourself. Depending on the data you want to report on, you can use the following reporting tools in Human Resources:
  • InfoSet Query
  • SAP Query
  • The Business Information Warehouse
If the HR reporting tools do not enable you to create the report you require without having to program, you can consider undertaking your own customer development.

Q. What is a user group, what is an infoset and how are the two related?
A. User Group: To set up an appropriate working environment for end users, the system administrator maintains user groups. Users who work in the same application are grouped together in user groups.
  • It does not matter which users within a user group actually defined its queries. They can be executed by every user assigned to this user group.
  • However, users assigned to a user group can only change and redefine queries if they have the appropriate authorization to do so.
  • Queries that belong to other user groups cannot be changed, but it is possible for them to be copied and executed.
  • Every user can be assigned to more than one user group.
InfoSets are special views of logical databases. An InfoSet determines which fields of a logical database can be reported on by queries. InfoSets are assigned to user groups. InfoSets are structured according to field groups. An InfoSet can only be based on one logical database. For this reason, you can only select one logical database to create an InfoSet.

Q. What is a field group? Give examples from HR.
A. Field groups in HR correspond to infotypes.Eg. Personal data (first name, last name etc)

Q. What can an Ad Hoc Query be used for?
A. Ad Hoc Query is a simple and efficient tool for selecting and processing HR data.
  • Ad Hoc Query is the tool that is best suited to line item (flat) reporting.
  • Ad Hoc Query has the following advantages:
    • Report definition is simple using Drag&Drop
    • You can report on data from Personnel Administration, Organizational Management, Training and Event Management, Recruitment, and Personnel Development
    • You can select selection and output fields as required.
    • There are numerous report design options. 
    • The resulting set is displayed before output 
    • Real data is selected and output – it is a one-screen application 
    • Results are determined very quickly because the database is accessed directly 
    • Logs

Saturday, 13 April 2013

TM Q n As

Q. How can we generate absence quota for a group of employees?
A.You can use report RPTQTA00 to accrue time-off entitlements automatically for groups of employees or individual employees. They are then saved as records of the Absence Quotas infotype (2006).

Q. What is the difference between RPTQTA00 and RPTIME00 ?
A. RPTQTA00 is used when no time evaluation is used. This is used to directly update the Absence Quota Infotype 2006.

RPTIME00 is used when time evaluation is used. This is used to accrue the quota balance day wise, month wise. etc.

Q.What do you mean by planned times? Where are these stored for an employee? 
A.Planned specifications for an employee's working time are stored in the Planned Working Time infotype (0007). However, there are often changes to the specified working times, for example, if an employee works overtime, does not come to work (due to illness, for example), attends a seminar, or works different times than usual. In addition, employees are entitled to vacation and possibly further training. This and other information is stored in infotypes in Time Management. The information from these time infotypes can be transferred and processed further in time evaluation and payroll, as required.

Q. SCHKZ - Default Work Schedule
A. If you are assigning a Planned working time to an employee for the first time, you can use this feature SCHKZ to generate a default work schedule according to the employee's organizational assignment.
The feature is used in assigning the work schedule rule (general) defined for particular personnel sub area. When ever any action is run, the IT 0007 is updated with the default work schedule assigned in the feature.
IMG Path: IMG >Time Management>Work Schedule>Planned working time.

Q. How would record time in your SAP HR system?
A. We can record time using one of the following methods:
  • -Online by time administrators
  • -Separate time recording systems
  • -Cross-Application Time Sheet (CATS)
  • -Employee Self-Service (ESS) applications
  • -Customer systems with an interface to the R/3 System
Q. Which characteristics does a public holiday class blank have?
A. The public holidays are defined according to collective agreements or regional and internal business specifications.
Public holidays are grouped as follows:
  • -Holy days such as Christmas, Easter and Yom Kippur
  • -Regional or national religious public holidays such as Ascension and Epiphany
  • -Legal public holidays such as Thanksgiving, Boxing Day and Bastille Day
Public holidays are grouped into categories and then numbered. These categories are referred to as "public holiday classes" that contain payment-related data. For example, an employee working on public holiday with a public class "1" is compensated at a higher rate than when working on a day classified as public holiday class "2."

In the standard SAP system, the public holiday class "1" is assigned to all public holidays except for Christmas Eve and New Year's Eve. These days are assigned public holiday class "2".
A blank public holiday class indicates that it is working day.

Q. Which characteristic does a day with day type 1 have?
A. Off/paid.

Q.What are the types of break schedules?
A. You define the break rules in the work schedule for any particular working day and assign them to a personnel subarea grouping for work schedules. This grouping enables you to assign a break schedule to as many of the grouping’s daily work schedules as you want, achieving maximum flexibility in combining all elements of the daily work schedule.

The following three types of break schedules are available:
  • Fixed Breaks: Breaks are defined for a certain time period and can only be used by employees during this period of time.
    • Breakfast break — 9:00 a.m. to 9:15 a.m.
    • Lunch break — 12:00 noon to 1:00 p.m.
    • Coffee break — 15:30 to 15:45
  • Variable Breaks: Breaks are taken during a specific time interval. Employees themselves determine the start and end of the break taken within this time interval.
    • Employees are entitled to a 45-minute break any time between 12:00 noon to 2:00 p.m.
  • Dynamic Breaks: Breaks taken after working a certain number of hours. Ex. Employees are entitled to the following breaks:
    • Half-hour break after working 3 hours
    • One-hour break after working 5 hours
Q. What ways are there to define breaks within a break schedule?
A. You can specify exactly when breaks may be taken within the daily work schedule, and whether they are paid or unpaid.
  • -You have maintained the personnel subarea grouping for work schedules.
  • -You have maintained the grouping for daily work schedules.
If you change a break schedule after it has been assigned to daily work schedules, you must  revaluate the daily work schedules in most cases.

Q. Which elements make up a period work schedule?
A. You create period work schedules by specifying the sequence of daily work schedules for a work schedule for one or more weeks.

Q. What is the difference between absences (Infotype 2001) and attendances (Infotype 2002)?
A. Absences are paid or unpaid planned working times during which the employee has not worked. They therefore represent a deviation to the employee's work schedule.

Attendances are used to record the actual hours worked by an employee.

Q. What is absence type?
A. The grouping of employees' scheduled absences and actual absences typically according to the reason for absence.

When you define a new absence type, copy one that has already been defined. Choose an absence type which is similar to the one you want to define.

Remember: when you copy an absence type, the system does not only copy the information you can see in this step. A number of settings that are stored in other views are also copied.

Q. What is an absence quota?
A. An employee's entitlement to absence. The quota has a limited validity period and is reduced each time an absence of this type is recorded.

Q. What are counting rules used for?
A. The rules are used to determine the payroll days and hours for an attendance or absence. The payroll days and hours that have been counted are used to control the deduction of quotas. They can be used in Payroll to valuate the absence.

A counting rule can comprise several individual sub-rules. The sub-rules are numbered sequentially. The system runs through the individual sub-rules until it finds a rule that applies.

Q. Previous Day Indicator
A. The previous day indicator in Time Management indicates that the record should be assigned to the previous day. It is relevant mainly to daily work schedules which bridge two calendar days (e.g. 22:00 - 06:00).
Q. Is there an employee subgroup grouping for time quotas?
A. Yes. Both ESG and PSAs are grouped to define time quotas

Q. What is the purpose of assigning a Daily Work Schedule class?
A.The daily work schedule class is a feature used to define daily work schedules. You use it to create evaluation criteria for a daily work schedule. According to the evaluation criteria, daily work schedules can be used in different ways in time wage type selection, attendance and absence counts, or in time evaluation.

The working times defined in a daily work schedule are not influenced by the assignment of a daily work schedule class. As a result, the daily work schedule class represents an additional evaluation of a daily work schedule.

Daily work schedule classes can be identified by any number between 0 and 9.

Example: You want to specify a working time model in which Saturday is a day off but your employees can work if they choose to do so. You define a daily work schedule with the desired planned hours and classify it with the daily work schedule class 0, which is stored as a day off.

In the personnel work schedule, create a daily work schedule specifying Saturday as a day off. If the employee works on a Saturday, the planned hours of the daily work schedule can be treated as overtime.

Q. What are the parameters required to generate a work schedule?
A. Below are the parameters required to generate a work schedule:
  • · ESG grouping
  • · Holiday calendar
  • · PSA Grouping
  • · WS rule
  • · Period (calendar month MMYYYY to MMYYYY)
Q. What is a variant of a daily work schedule?
A. A variant of a daily work schedule is used to record any exceptions to the normal daily work schedule on public holidays, on days which follow a public holiday, or on certain days of the week. This is done by defining rules for DWS. The rules allow you to stipulate that a variant of the daily work schedule should apply on certain days. Taking the following parameters into account, you can set up rules for daily work schedule variants:
  • · The public holiday class of the current day
  • · The public holiday class of the next day
  • · weekday
Example: A number of employees in your enterprise work Monday through Thursday from 8 a.m. to 4.45 p.m., and from 8 a.m. to 2 p.m. on Fridays. The daily work schedule for Fridays is derived using the daily work schedule selection rule 01 with variant A. 

Q. What is the use of QUOMO ?
A. You can use the quota type selection rule group to control absence quota type selection based on the employee's organizational assignment. By using different quota type selection rule groups, you can define different rules for quota selection.

In manual accrual of quotas using default values and for quota accrual by report RPTQTA00, the quota type selection rule group is determined using the QUOMO feature.

You use the QUOMO feature to define which quota type selection rule group your employees are assigned to, based on their organizational assignment. In a subsequent step, you specify selection rules for the quota type selection rule group to control absence quota accrual.

Example: Salaried employees are granted 24 days of standard annual leave for each year. In contrast, hourly-wage earners are granted 20 days of standard annual leave, with 2 days of additional leave. You make this distinction by assigning a different quota type selection rule group to the different employee subgroups (salaried employees, hourly-wage earners). These quota type selection rule groups are each assigned quota selection rules that determine what amounts of which quotas are to be proposed or accrued.

Q. What is personnel calendar?
A. Personal calendars are generated from the employee absences that you have entered into the system, either through the Absentee infotype, or through the annual overview calendar.

There are two types of calendar:
  • · The International personal calendar, which the system generates automatically.
  • · The national personal calendar, which you must generate before the payroll run, which will also process the calendar's contents.
Q. What are time events?
A. Time Events: The time postings stored in the SAP system (such as clock-in and clock-out or start and end of working time) that employees enter at a time recording terminal.

Q. Time events & Time pairs are stored in which tables
A. Time events are formed into time pairs before the data is evaluated by the time evaluation driver RPTIME00. All time events are processed that have been:
  • · Uploaded from a time recording system to the HR system
  • · Entered online in the Time Events infotype (2001)
  • After they have been uploaded, the new time events are inserted in table TEVEN.
    • All recorded, processed, unprocessed and deleted time events that have ever been entered or uploaded into the HR system are stored in table TEVEN.
  • All new time events that are loaded into the HR system are also copied to table NT1.
    • Table NT1 contains all unprocessed time events. The table serves as a pointer to any time events that have not yet been processed. Table NT1 is stored in cluster B1 in file PCL1.
  • After pair formation, the time pairs are inserted in table PT (pair table, Cluster B2), where they can be accessed for further processing. All processed time events are deleted from table NT1.
  • Time events that could not be processed due to an error are logged in table NT2 (in cluster B1).
Q. What is the use of Day Rules?
A. Day rules allow you to form counting classes or wage types based on the following conditions set for the day of an absence:
  • · Public holiday class or day type of current day or previous day?
  • · Weekday?
  • · Does the employee's personal work schedule for the current or previous day show planned hours?
You can specify several different conditions for a day rule, and assign them sequential numbers. The R/3 System runs through the numbers in consecutive order until it finds a condition that is fulfilled.

Q. Define base entitlements?
A. The base entitlement forms the basis for calculating the prorated leave or absence entitlement for each accrual period.

Q. What is the schema TQTA used for?
A. To Generate Absence Quotas.

If you want to take advantage of time evaluation’s automatic generation function, but do not implement time evaluation, you can use the standard schema TQTA. The schema enables you to represent relatively simple situations such as the proportionate calculation of entitlements per evaluation period, month or year.

Employees who are evaluated with this schema must be assigned the Time Management status 7 - Time evaluation without payroll integration in the Planned Working Time infotype (0007).